If you take a modern smartphone apart, you’ll find only a single circuit board inside. It might be small, but it connects all the individual system components, like the memory, cameras, sensors and processors. Miniaturisation isn’t just about saving space; it also reduces power consumption and production costs. Mobile phones, laptops, smartwatches, electric cars and industrial robots can all profit from these advancements. In modern smartphones, they can reduce the space required for the main circuit board by around a third.